Group for Discussions on Facebook: Nada's ESL Island.(Join us there! Post your questions)
"Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding." Stephen Krashen
Books to Read:
*Cook, V.J. (2001), "Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition"
*Cook, V.J. (2001), "Second Language Learning and Language Teaching"
Arnold, third edition
"Vivian Cook worked as a lecturer in EFL in Ealing Technical College, then as Director of the Language Service at North East London Polytechnic and is now Reader at Essex University. He is chiefly known for his work on L2 learning and for his book on Chomsky."
*Foster-Cohen, Susan H. (1999), "An Introduction to Child Language Development"
"Susan Foster-Cohen is the Head of the Department of English at the University of London, The British Institute in Paris, France."
*Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics)
by Wolfgang Klein
*The Tapestry of Language Learning : The Individual in the Communicative Classroom
by Robin C. Scarcella, Rebecca L. Oxford
*Inquiries and Insights
by Stephen D. Krashen
*Language Learning Strategies : What Every Teacher Should Know
by Rebecca L. Oxford
& Web site
*English Linguistics- History
"The English language is like a car. It needs four wheels to run smoothly. It can run with three but it will be a very bumpy ride! The four wheels of the English language include the semantics wheel, the morphology wheel, the syntax wheel, and the phonology wheel."
Paulette Dale, Ph.D.
*Are You A Good Language Learner?
*What Factors Affect Language Acquisition?
"Error Analysis: Arabic Speakers' English Writings")*Introduction: Language & Language Learning
Language: Form & Function
A good definition for any concept has to have a definition for form and function.
A child is aware of form before function.
I- Language: FORMA- Language is a Shared Code:
continental values of vowels: sounds. (There are 11 to 16 sounds).
American English Vowels:English vowels [i], , [e], , [æ], , [o], , [u], , [aj], [aw], [j] 
- straightforward symbols
- [p], [b], [m], [f], [v], [t], [d], [l], [w]
- not-so-straightforward symbols
- [k], [g], [s], [z], [n], [h], [j]
- new symbols
Diphthongs (Two vowels forming one sound)
-     [t] [d]  
- /ay/ I, pie, hide, Hyman, Tschaikovsky
- /oy/ Oy!, boy, boil
- /aw/ house, cow
- /ey/ /ei/ may, lay
B- Language is a System (It follows rules like every other system)
. C- Language is made of Sounds:
(The basic elements of the system)
[Consonants, Vowels, & Diphthongs =>
Prosodic features (stress & intonation).
Phonetics* D- Language is a Sound System (Syllabic structure)
E- Language is Words (Word formation)
F- Language is Meaning (Study of meaning)
How meanings are associated-
How synonyms/antonyms are acquired.
G- Language is Sentences (Sentence structure)
H- Language is Context
=>Cohesion: syntactically makes sense
*Phonetics: It is the science or study of the physical aspects of speech events.II- Language: FUNCTION
*Phonology: It is the study of how the sound systems of a language interact with each other. For example, the final [t] of the word "subject" becomes [š] when the suffix "-ion" is added to the word. Thus phonology is the study of how the vowels and consonants interact with each other and how they, in turn, may be affected by elements such as stress.
*Morphology: It is the branch of linguistics that deals with the internal structure of those words that can be broken down further into meaningful parts. Morphology is concerned centrally with how speakers of language understand complex words and how they create new ones.
*Semantics: Study of context-independent meaning.
*Syntax: It is the study of the part of the human linguistic system that determines how sentences are put together out of words.
*Pragmatics: Study of context-dependent meaning. (Pragmatics" self-study exercises)Pragmatics is the study of the context-dependent aspects of MEANING that are systematically abstracted away from in the construction of LOGICAL FORM.*Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics compared.
Language is a shared code. Its main function is Communication: Verbal & Non-Verbal.
A- Verbal Communication*Competence & Performance.(Chomsky)
B- Non-Verbal Communication
- Expressive Communication: Express needs, emotions
- Transactional Communication: Talk, respond, request, apologize,... + Performative language (ex. I bet you $10 that...)
- Phatic Communication/ Formulaic Expressions: Small talk- Ex. Good afternoon; How do you do; Pleased to meet you; ... + Conversational openers (ex. talking about the weather...)
- Metaphorical/Poetic Communication: Artistic element in communication. "Writing for writing's sake"
- Kinesics or Body Language: (ex. nodding...) used to portray moods and emotions and to emphasize or contradict what is being said. ["The Silent Language" by Edward Hall]
- Artifacts:.objects, often clothes, jewelry, pictures, trinkets, which express one’s interests, hobbies, status, or lifestyle.
- Proxemics:.personal space*Miscellaneous
Competence: What we know- Our deep structure- What we are capable of doing. Performance: What we show- Our surface structure. What we do. Children also learn Paralanguage: Paralanguage refers to vocal features that accompany speech and contribute to communication but are not generally considered to be part of the language system, as vocal quality, loudness, and tempo: sometimes also including facial expressions and gestures.
- Contrastive Rhetoric: Mode of thinking
"English" thought was said to resemble a straight line.
Notice that the two diagrams "Romance" and "Russian" (representing a goodly portion of the 'Western' world) are hardly linear, suggesting that weaving, wavering, ambivalence, and lack of clear progression are unremarkable patterns of discourse organisation in these nations.
(Click on the link above to go to an article including a paragraph titled "Literacy cross-culturally." => Interesting point of view.)
Kaplan (1966) illustrates five different rhetorical patterns: English, Semitic, Oriental,
Romance and Russian, and provides a sample of English writing by each through which the disparity with English writing is exposed.
- Linguistic Relativity: How much are we affected by the patterns of our language?
Linguistic relativity is the "proposal that the particular language one speaks influences the way one thinks about reality."
*Definition of Terms (Terminology)
Glossary- Southern Illinois University
Glossary- U.S. Department of Education- Programs for English Language Learners
Glossary of linguistic terms- SIL International
- Linguistic Competence
- Communicative Competence
Saying things right at the right time at the right place.
- Linguistic Accommodation
It refers to the process by which the child changes the way information is organized in his/her mind so that the new input can be easily integrated into the knowledge store. This concept was first proposed by Cognitivist psychologist Jean Piaget.
- Krashen's theory of second language acquisition: five main hypotheses:
- the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis,
- the Monitor hypothesis,
- the Natural Order hypothesis,
- the Input hypothesis,
- and the Affective Filter hypothesis.
- Bilingual, Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (BCLAD)
The purpose of the CLAD/BCLAD Examinations is to identify candidates for certification who have demonstrated the level of knowledge and skills required to teach LEP students satisfactorily. These exams measure each examinee's knowledge and skills in relation to an established standard rather than in relation to those of other examinees.
- Audio-Lingual Method
It is an approach to second language instruction based on Behaviorist learning theory. This approach stresses memorization and pattern drills to attain mastery of the language. Priority is given to speaking skills and building habits through overlearning.
- Dual Language Program:
Also known as two-way or developmental, the goal of these bilingual programs is for students to develop language proficiency in two languages by receiving instruction in English and another language in a classroom that is usually comprised of half native English speakers and half native speakers of the other language.
Basic interpersonal communication skills. The language ability required for verbal face-to-face communication.
Cognitive academic language proficiency. The language ability required for academic achievement.
- Content-based English as a Second Language
This approach makes use of instructional materials, learning tasks, and classroom techniques from academic content areas as the vehicle for developing language, content, cognitive and study skills. English is used as the medium of instruction.
English language learner. A national-origin-minority student who is limited-English-proficient. This term is often preferred over limited-English-proficient (LEP) as it highlights accomplishments rather than deficits.
- English as a Second Language (ESL)
A program of techniques, methodology and special curriculum designed to teach ELL students English language skills, which may include listening, speaking, reading, writing, study skills, content vocabulary, and cultural orientation. ESL instruction is usually in English with little use of native language.
Fluent (or fully) English proficient.
- Sheltered English Instruction
An instructional approach used to make academic instruction in English understandable to ELL students. In the sheltered classroom, teachers use physical activities, visual aids, and the environment to teach vocabulary for concept development in mathematics, science, social studies, and other subjects.
- Structured English Immersion Program
The goal of this program is acquisition of English language skills so that the ELL student can succeed in an English-only mainstream classroom. All instruction in an immersion strategy program is in English. Teachers have specialized training in meeting the needs of ELL students, possessing either a bilingual education or ESL teaching credential and/or training, and strong receptive skills in the students' primary language.
- Submersion Program
A submersion program places ELL students in a regular English-only program with little or no support services on the theory that they will pick up English naturally. This program should not be confused with a structured English immersion program.
- Transitional Bilingual Education Program
This program, also known as early-exit bilingual education, utilizes a student's primary language in instruction. The program maintains and develops skills in the primary language and culture while introducing, maintaining, and developing skills in English. The primary purpose of a TBE program is to facilitate the ELL student's transition to an all English instructional program while receiving academic subject instruction in the native language to the extent necessary.
- Code Switching
Changing from one language to another in a diglossic community.
- Code Mixing
The use of elements or structures from two or more languages in the same utterance.
LG501 Second Language Acquisition Research for L2 Teaching *****
Acquisition of English as a Second Language
Activities That Promote Language Development
A Look Into Second Language Acquisition
Applied Linguistics- Issues in Second Language Acquisition *****
Dr. Judith Olson
A Summary of Stephen Krashen's "Principles and Practice in
Second Language Acquisition"
By Reid Wilson
Attitude & Motivation- Papers (abstracts only)
Centre canadien des ressources sur l'enseignement des langues (CCREL)
Born to Talk: An Introduction to Speech and Language Development, 3/e
Lloyd M. Hulit
Merle R. Howard, Illinois State University
Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA)
University of Minnesota
Center for Language Acquisition (CLA)
Pennsylvania State University
Contextual Factors in Second Language Acquisition
Aída Walqui, West Ed, San Francisco, California
Contrastive Rhetoric: Cross-Cultural Aspects of Second-Language Writing
Conversations with Mainstream Teachers:
What can we tell them about second language learning and teaching?
Cornell Language Acquisition Lab (CLAL
Didactics - 4 : Second language acquisition *****
Some experiments and a theory
Human language development outline
PREREQUISITES FOR HUMAN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
The University of New Hampshire, Durham
How did you learn to speak your native language?
Language Acquisition- GLOSSARY *****
Language Acquisition Resource Center- LARC
San Diego State University
Language and Linguistics Links
Linguistic Relativity Resource Center
Linguistics and Language ******
MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences
Linguistics Journals and Newsletters on the Web *****
Methods of Second-Language Teaching- (power point)
Jill Kerper Mora, Ed.D.
San Diego State University
Modern Approaches to FLT
Motivation and Transfer in Language Learning
Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent
Output and Beyond to Dialogue: A Review of Merrill Swain's Current
Approach to SLA
David J. Woodfield
Human International University
Scoring Rubric for Interactive Oral Communication
Second Language Acquisition & Teaching
Second Language acquisition [SLA] & Second language
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION BIBLIOGRAPHY
Second Language Acquisition Theories: Overview and Evaluation *****
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
ISSUES IN CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH
Second Language Acquisition Theory and Pedagogy
SLA Theory and CALL
Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition
Studies in Second Language Acquisition
Cambridge Journals Online
Teacher's Handbook- Professional Links!
The International Commission on Second Language Acquisition
Theory to Support Instruction
Page created on February 18, 2002 || Last updated on October 26, 2009
Copyright © 2002-2009 Nada Salem Abisamra
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Affect in Language Learning: Motivation
"Error Analysis: Arabic Speakers' English Writings"