Running head: ERROR ANALYSIS: ARABIC SPEAKERS’ ENGLISH WRITINGS

 
 

An Analysis of Errors in Arabic Speakers’ English Writings

Nada AbiSamra
(Email me if you have any comments or questions)


American University of Beirut
Instructor: Dr. Kassim Shaaban
Second Language Acquisition
English 345
January 2003
Click here to get it as a Word Document
(Original Form)

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Table of Contents

A.Introduction:

1.Importance of communication
2.Communicative competence
3.Oral & Written communication
4.Emphasis on written communication, the more difficult component
5.Native Speakers of English vs. Non-Native Speakers (Arabic speakers)
6.Mistake vs. Error => self-correctability factor
7.Rationale of study: Problems relating to the teaching of English as a
      First language to Arabic speakers are understudied.

8.Aim of paper: Attempt to identify, describe, categorize, and diagnose Arabic
      speakers’ errors in English essay writing + suggest some solutions.

9.Research Question:  Is negative L1 transfer/interference the major cause for
      errors in the English writings of Brevet students?
B.Theoretical Background:
1.Error Analysis
2.Models for Error Analysis
3.Sources of Errors
C.Procedures:
1.Error/Data Collection
2.Error Identification and Categorization & Taxonomy Adopted
D.Results
E.Implications

F.Limitations & Suggestions for future research

G.Conclusion

H.References

I.Appendixes:
 
 

1.General List of Abbreviations

2.School mission statement (soon)

3.Student Survey

4.Arabic: General Language Characteristics

5.ESL Tip Sheet 1: Arabic (Sofer & Raimes, 2002)

6.Table 1: Error Categories & Sources + Abbreviations

7.Table 2: Categorizing & Diagnosing Errors

8.Table 3: Categorizing & Diagnosing Errors- Interlingual / Transfer Errors

9.Table 4: Categorizing & Diagnosing Errors- Intralingual / Dev. errors

10.Table 5: Error Sources & Numbers Compared

11.Oral & Written Presentations: Guidelines & Expectations

12.Error Analysis Exercises & Objective Tests for Remediation
 
 

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Introduction

“My purpose in being Part in the goverment is Change. I want to change the world. Change in the means of War, Freedom, and equalness. Also as being part of the government, One should have self-confidence, can stand-up for self, and others, and at the same time have a degree in a great proffession.Then How am I working now, I’am participation in every activity Possible, that has to do with improving our community today. On top of that, I always keep in mind that to work hard, and keep my self on the right track.”
Written by a Brevet student.
December 2002
Communication, "a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior" (Merriam-Webster Online, 2003), is at the heart of all human interactions; it is the basis of life.

No one can live alone. By the word "live" I do not just mean "survive" or "subsist", but "have a life rich in experience" (Merriam-Webster Online, 2003). "Communicative competence involves communicating in accordance with that fundamental system of rules that adult subjects master to the extent that they can fulfill the conditions for a happy employment of sentences in utterances" (Habermas, 1979). As we all know, we communicate orally and/or in writing. Our focus in this paper is on the written part. "In spoken conversations with others, we make sense of the dialogue in a complex back-and-forth process of negotiation of meaning between speakers. In written texts, this back-and-forth negotiation is not possible; there is only 'one passÃ.' The sentence is written and it is read. Because there is no possibility of negotiating meaning of written documents, the inevitable problems of misunderstandings are exacerbated" (Penman, 1998).

Hence, we can say that writing is an “intricate” and complex task; it is the “most difficult of the language abilities to acquire” (Allen & Corder, 1974, p. 177). Its level of difficulty varies between native speakers (NS) who think in the language used (in our case it will be English) and non-native speakers (NNS) who think in their own native language (in this case it will be Arabic). While writing, non-native speakers have, in general, to think about all those rules they need to apply, rules that native speakers are supposed to have automatized. Therefore, non-native speakers are more prone to making mistakes and/or committing errors.
 
 

It is essential here to make a distinction between mistake and error; both Corder (1967, 1971) and James (1998) reveal a criterion that helps us to do so: it is the self-correctability criterion. A mistake can be self-corrected, but an error cannot. Errors are “systematic,” i.e. likely to occur repeatedly and not recognized by the learner. Hence, only the teacher or researcher would locate them, the learner wouldn’t (Gass & Selinker, 1994). And it is in this light that I choose to focus on students’ errors not mistakes.
 
 

As an English teacher, I am well aware of the fact that my Arabic speaking students in grade 9, brevet section, commit a lot of errors in essay writing. You can tell from the quotation with which I begin this paper. These students have been studying English their whole lives and still, their errors are numerous. Hence, I have decided to conduct an error analysis--the best tool for describing and explaining errors made by speakers of other languages (Johanson, 1975) -- in order to know the sources of these errors and the reasons behind their continued occurrence year after year with different groups of learners. I need to familiarize myself with the types of errors that my students make in order to determine the sequence and emphasis of instruction.

“Very surprisingly there are few published descriptions of how or what children learn. (There... is) little about what mistakes the children made and how these can be explained, or what generalizations and learning strategies the children seem to be developing” (Richards, 1974, p. 181).

After having reviewed the literature, I noticed that no study had been done (that I knew of, at least!) which involves Arabic speaking students who have been studying English since nursery; students who are studying English integratively, as a FIRST language. However, it is essential here to mention the fact that the language these students speak at home is mainly Arabic, not English (see appendix 3); hence, we can venture to say that they are ESL students, however immersed in English they might be at school.

“To use two languages familiarly and without contaminating one by the other, is very difficult,” said Samuel Johnson in 1761.

 Can this fact account for our problems? Is my students’ native language (L1) “contaminating” their English (L2)? If this were to be true, then we could say that the reason behind all those errors is Negative L1 transfer/Mother Tongue interference. And the best way to discover such a transfer is through error analysis (Sridhar, 1980). However, can transfer alone justify all the errors made?

Our research question is then:

“Is negative L1 transfer/interference the major cause for errors in the English writings of Brevet students?”

This paper will attempt to do the following:

  1. Provide a theoretical background for: a) Error Analysis, b) Models for Error Analysis, & c) Sources of Errors. (It will also examine related terms such as interlingual errors, negative L1 transfer/interference, interlanguage, and intralingual errors);
  2. Identify, describe, categorize, and diagnose Arabic speakers’ errors in English essay writing in order to find the sources of those errors and a way for remediation;
  3. Cover the implications of the findings for teaching ESL/English to Arabic speaking students; and, finally,
  4. Discuss the limitations of this study and propose future areas of research.
Theoretical Background
Error Analysis

Systematically analyzing errors made by language learners makes it possible to determine areas that need reinforcement in teaching (Corder, 1974).
 
 

Error analysis is a type of linguistic analysis that focuses on the errors learners make. It consists of a comparison between the errors made in the Target Language (TL) and that TL itself. Pit Corder is the “Father” of Error Analysis (the EA with the “new look”). It was with his article entitled “The significance of Learner Errors” (1967) that EA took a new turn. Errors used to be “flaws” that needed to be eradicated. Corder presented a completely different point of view. He contended that those errors are “important in and of themselves.” For learners themselves, errors are 'indispensable,' since the making of errors can be regarded as a device the learner uses in order to learn. In 1994, Gass & Selinker defined errors as “red flags” that provide evidence of the learner’s knowledge of the second language. Researchers are interested in errors because they are believed to contain valuable information on the strategies that people use to acquire a language (Richards, 1974; Taylor, 1975; Dulay and Burt, 1974). Moreover, according to Richards and Sampson (1974, p. 15), “At the level of pragmatic classroom experience, error analysis will continue to provide one means by which the teacher assesses learning and teaching and determines priorities for future effort.” According to Corder (1974), error analysis has two objects: one theoretical and another applied. The theoretical object serves to “elucidate what and how a learner learns when he studies a second language.” And the applied object serves to enable the learner “to learn more efficiently by exploiting our knowledge of his dialect for pedagogical purposes.”

The investigation of errors can be at the same time diagnostic and prognostic. It is diagnostic because it can tell us the learner's state of the language (Corder, 1967) at a given point during the learning process, and prognostic because it can tell course organizers to reorient language learning materials on the basis of the learners' current problems.
 
 

Before we proceed, it is essential here to define a few terms that we shall use in this paper:

·Interlingual/Transfer errors: those attributed to the native language (NL). There are interlingual errors when the learner’s L1 habits (patterns, systems or rules) interfere or prevent him/her, to some extent, from acquiring the patterns and rules of the second language (Corder, 1971). Interference (negative transfer) is the negative influence of the mother language (L1) on the performance of the target language learner (L2) (Lado, 1964). It is 'those instances of deviation from the norms of either language which occur in the speech of bilinguals as a result of their familiarity with more than one language' (Weinreich, 1953, p.1).

Error analysis emphasizes “the significance of errors in learners’ interlanguage system” (Brown 1994, p. 204). The term interlanguage, introduced by Selinker (1972), refers to the systematic knowledge of an L2 which is independent of both the learner’s L1 and the target language. Nemser (1974, p. 55) referred to it as the Approximate System, and Corder (1967) as the Idiosyncratic Dialect or Transitional Competence.
 
 

·Intralingual/Developmental errors: those due to the language being learned (TL), independent of the native language. According to Richards (1970) they are “items produced by the learner which reflect not the structure of the mother tongue, but generalizations based on partial exposure to the target language. The learner, in this case, tries to “derive the rules behind the data to which he/she has been exposed, and may develop hypotheses that correspond neither to the mother tongue nor to the target language” (Richards, 1970, p. 6).
 
 

Models for Error Analysis

Corder (1967 & 1974) identified a model for error analysis which included three stages:

  1. Data collection: Recognition of idiosyncracy
  2. Description: Accounting for idiosyncratic dialect
  3. Explanation (the ultimate object of error analysis).
Brown (1994, pp. 207-211) and Ellis (1995, pp. 51-52) elaborated on this model. Ellis (1997, pp. 15-20) and Hubbard et al. (1996, pp. 135-141) gave practical advice and provided clear examples of how to identify and analyze learners’ errors. The initial step requires the selection of a corpus of language followed by the identification of errors. The errors are then classified. The next step, after giving a grammatical analysis of each error, demands an explanation of different types of errors.
Moreover, Gass & Selinker (1994, p. 67) identified  6 steps followed in conducting an error analysis: Collecting data, Identifying errors, Classifying errors, Quantifying errors, Analyzing source of error, and Remediating for errors.

 
 

Sources of Errors

In 1972, Selinker (in Richards, 1974, p. 37) reported five sources of errors:

1.Language transfer

2.Transfer of training

3.Strategies of second language learning

4.Strategies of second language communication, and 

5.Overgeneralization of TL linguistic material.

In 1974 Corder (in Allen & Corder, p. 130) identified three sources of errors: Language Transfer, Overgeneralization or analogy, & Methods or Materials used in the Teaching (teaching-induced error).

In the paper titled “The Study of Learner English” that Richards and Simpson wrote in 1974, they exposed seven sources of errors:

  1. Language transfer, to which one third of the deviant sentences from second language learners could be attributed (George, 1971).
  2. Intralingual interference: In 1970, Richards exposed four types and causes for intralingual errors:
    1. overgeneralization (p. 174): it is associated with redundancy reduction. It covers instances where the learner creates a deviant structure on the basis of his experience of other structures in the target language. It may be the result of the learner reducing his linguistic burden.
    2. ignorance of rule restrictions: i.e. applying rules to contexts to which they do not apply.
    3. incomplete application of rules
    4. semantic errors such as building false concepts/systems: i.e. faulty comprehension of distinctions in the TL.
  3. Sociolinguistic situation: motivation (instrumental or integrative) and settings for language learning (compound or co-ordinate bilingualism) may affect second language learning.
  4. Modality: modality of exposure to the TL and modality of production.
  5. Age: learning capacities vary with age.
  6. Successions of approximative systems:  since the circumstances of language learning vary from a person to another, so does the acquisition of new lexical, phonological, and syntactic items.
  7. Universal hierarchy of difficulty:  this factor has received little attention in the literature of 2nd language acquisition. It is concerned with the inherent difficulty for man of certain phonological, syntactic, or semantic items or structures. Some forms may be inherently difficult to learn no matter what the background of the learner.
James (1998, p. 178) exposed three main diagnosis-based categories of error:
  1. Interlingual: interference happens when “an item or structure in the second language manifests some degree of difference from, and some degree of similarity with the equivalent item or structure in the learner’s first language” (Jackson, 1987: 101).
  2. Intralingual:
    1. Learning strategy-based errors:
i.false analogy
ii.misanalysis

iii.incomplete rule application

iv.exploiting redundancy

v.overlooking cooccurrence restrictions

vi.hypercorrection (monitor overuse)

vii.overgeneralization or system simplification

    1. Communication strategy-based errors:
i.holistic strategies: e.g. approximation, language switch, calque
ii.analytic strategies: circumlocution (expressing the concept indirectly, by allusion rather than by direct reference.
  1. Induced errors: they “result more from the classroom situation than from either the student’s incomplete competence in English grammar (intralingual errors) or first language interference (interlingual errors) (Stenson, 1983, p. 256):
    1. Material induced errors
    2. Teacher-talk induced errors
    3. Exercise-based induced errors
    4. Errors induced by pedagogical priorities
    5. Look-up errors
According to Dulay & Burt (1974), there are four types of “goofs”:
  1. Interference-like goofs
  2. L1 Developmental goofs
  3. Ambiguous goofs (either interference-like or L1 developmental goofs)
  4. Unique goofs (neither interference-like nor L1 developmental goofs)
The studies relating to the process of language transfer and overgeneralization received considerable attention in the literature. Swan and Smith (1995, p. ix) gave a detailed account of errors made by speakers of nineteen different L1 backgrounds in relation to their native languages.  Diab (1996) also conducted a study in order to show through error analysis the interference of the mother-tongue, Arabic, in the English writings of EFL students at the American University of Beirut. Okuma (1999) studied the L1 transfer in the EFL writings of Japanese students.
Work on over-generalization errors, on the other hand, is reported by Richards (1974, pp. 174-188), Jain (in Richards, 1974, pp. 208-214) and Taylor (1975). Furthermore, Farooq (1998) identified and analyzed two error patterns in written texts of upper-basic Japanese learners, in an EFL context. He focused on both transfer and overgeneralization errors. Habash (1982) studied common errors in the use of English prepositions in the written work of UNRWA students at the end of the preparatory cycle in the Jerusalem area and found out that more errors were attributable to interference from Arabic than to other learning problems.

All these studies focused on Transfer &/or Overgeneralization errors, however, none of them dealt with “ESL” students who have been studying English as a First Language. The reason why I called them ESL students is that, at home, they speak mainly Arabic.
 
 

Procedures

1- Error/Data Collection:

For the selection of a corpus of language, following the guidelines offered by Ellis

(1995, pp. 51-52), a sample of written work was collected from 10 students. Those students are in grade 9, Brevet section (cf. appendix 2). They have been studying English since nursery (cf. appendix 3), and have been taught English mainly by American & Canadian teachers. However, there is a point that needs to be mentioned here, and it is the fact that most of them speak Arabic at home with their parents and at school with their friends. (cf. appendix 3).

These students were provided with the topic ‘What are your plans for the future?’ and were asked to write on it in 200 to 250 words. They were given sufficient time to write (Ellis 1997, p. 114). They had to start with an outline, then a first draft and a final draft. This was their mid-term examination at school, in December 2003.
 
 

2- Error Identification & Categorization:

As a first step, we developed, based on the literature (Corder, 1974; Richards, 1974; James, 1998; Selinker, 1972 in Richards, 1974; Richards & Sampson, 1974), a Taxonomy for Error Analysis including the following categories and sub-categories: grammatical (prepositions, articles, reported speech, singular/plural, adjectives, relative clauses, irregular verbs, tenses, and possessive case), syntactic (coordination, sentence structure, nouns and pronouns, and word order), lexical (word choice), semantic, & substance (mechanics: punctuation & capitalization, and spelling). As for the organizational/discourse errors, we shall mention them but will not quantify them since, first, it is difficult to do so, and, second, we had trained our students, prior to the exam, to write a well-organized essay (thesis statement, restatement of the thesis, and the use of transition words).

After setting the categories, we chose, also based on the literature, the error sources that we wanted to study, and they are mainly Interlingual (negative L1 Transfer) & Intralingual (Developmental).

Please refer to table # 1 in the appendix for further details.

So, the errors were explained in grammatical terms, and thoroughly examined to find their sources, paying particular attention to negative L1 transfer, since we needed to address our research question: “Is negative L1 transfer/interference the major cause for errors in the English writings of Brevet students?” Being myself a native Arabic speaker holding a master’s degree in translation (from/to Arabic, French, & English) and based on the literature (refer to appendix 5), I was able to perceive and pinpoint the errors due to L1 (Arabic) Transfer. (However, we should not forget that some errors are caused by interference from standard Arabic and others by interference from colloquial Arabic.)

In addition, since I have been teaching English as a second language for over 12 years, and since I have finished the coursework for my second master’s in Teaching English as a Foreign/Second Language, I was able to detect the developmental errors in my students’ essays, and these are listed in detail in table # 2 in the appendix.
 
 

Results:

The total number of errors that we found in the 10 essays we studied was 214.  Here they are, in the graph below, divided according to the different categories:
 
 

Graph 1

29 grammatical, 35 syntactic, 26 lexical, 3 semantic, and 120 substance (mechanics & spelling) errors.
 
 

Graph 2

Graph number 2 shows the percentage of Transfer vs. Developmental errors for each category. The total percentage of Transfer/Interlingual errors was 35.9%, whereas the total percentage of Developmental/Intralingual errors was 64.1%. Based on this graph we can tell that the highest percentage of Transfer errors was in Semantics & Lexis, respectively 100% & 73% (refer to table 3 in the appendix). As for the highest percentage of Developmental errors, it was, by far, in Substance (mainly spelling; refer to table 4 in the appendix).
 
 

Graph 3

Graph number 3 shows the number of Transfer vs. Developmental errors for each category. The total number of Transfer/Interlingual errors was 77, whereas the total number of Developmental/Intralingual errors was 137.

Based on these findings we can tell that Brevet students do commit errors because of Negative L1 transfer, however, their biggest number of errors is due to Developmental/Intralingual reasons.
 
 

Examples of Negative L1 transfer Errors:(table # 3 in the appendix)

  1. Grammatical errors:
    1. I would like to follow in my father’s footsteps. (??? ??? ???)
Prepositions pose a great difficulty for an ESL learner since there are various prepositions in English that have the same function. As a result, when students are not sure which preposition to use in a certain sentence, they often compare that sentence with its Arabic equivalence, giving a literal translation of that Arabic preposition in English. However, "prepositions seldom have a one to one correspondence between English and Arabic. An Arabic preposition may be translated by several English prepositions while an English usage may have several Arabic translations" (Scott and Tucker, 1974, p. 85). 
    1. Evil is? force that can enter a person’s soul and conquer it. (????? ????) => omission of the article in Arabic (refer to appendix 5)
    2. When the evil comes (?????  ???? ????? => use of article in Arabic)
In English, abstract words referring to ideas, attributes, or qualities are used without the article 'the' to refer to that idea or attribute, etc. which belongs to everybody or everything. In Arabic, however, such abstract words are preceded by a definite article equivalent to 'the' in English. Hence, errors pertaining to the misuse of the article 'the' occur (Diab, 1996).
    1. I wonder what god has written for me, what’s my destiny?

    2. (?????? ?? ?? ?????)
    3. Calling others kids to come (?????? ??????? ???????)
“In Arabic, adjectives agree in number with the nouns they modify. As a result, agreement errors of this type occur in the English writings of Lebanese students” (Diab, 1996).
  1. Syntactic errors:
    1. For, them not to hate me they need to respect me and realize how much I love them and how hard I work for them. (repetition of “wa”)
“In English, items in a series are separated by commas, and the coordinate conjunction 'and' is used just before the last word. On the other hand, in Arabic, each item in a series is preceded by the conjunction 'wa' which is equivalent to 'and'” (Diab, 1996).
    1. I have learned a lesson in my life, that you should never ever give up (?????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ? ??? ...)
    2. What I want to be?  (?? ???? ?? ???? ?)
    3. I have a lot of people in my family that are computer engineers. (colloquial Arabic)
    4. That, I have been doing since a long time ago. (??? ???? ?????)
    5. ...most people when they grow up (???? ????? ??? ?????? ...) (also colloquial)
In Arabic, personal pronouns are often added to verbs.
  1. Lexical Errors:
    1. If I hit an animal it would loose trust in me and stay on irritating me while curing it. (colloquial)
    2. Some animals are nice pets to have, when they have the right health and medications. (?????? ??????? )
    3. They should have veterinarians around them in case they get sick or any strong disease stricked them. (?????)
    4. They should have veterinarians around them in case they get sick or any strong disease stricked them. (???? ????? ) 
    5. Animals are usually very afraid of high sounds. (?????? ????? ) 
    6. For me acheiving these goals makes me happy. (??????? ?? ...)
    7. How ever each person must succeed to his ability. (??? ?????)
    8. You never know what god has installed for you.  (??? ?? )
    9. For me to be counted as a one of a kind mother I need to take (??????? ...) 
    10. In my free time I will practice on improving my basketball fundamentals.(?????? ???  )
  1. Semantic Errors: (Literal translation)
a.When I secure a job my goal is to become partner and have a quarter office.
????? ????? ????
b.By accomplishing these plans I will insure myself an outstanding life.
????? ?????
c.Architecture works my brain.????? ????))
  1. Substance (Mechanics + Spelling):
    1. Punctuation
i.However?evil has its shapes and forms. (???? ?????...)
ii.As a result, I intend to get a good education, and job, which will allow me to raise a family in a suitable enviroment.? ???? 

iii.Obtaining a good job will be a crucial part of my life for various reasons. One of which, is that it enables me to have a stable income.

iv.It is known to be, that a person would be more appreaciated, and treated better? if he were an educated individual than a failure. (?? ??????? ???...)

v.Personally? I beleive that you can never be sure. (????? ????...)

vi.When I get to university? I will try my best to get high honors in architecture. (??? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ? ...)

    1. Capitalization (No capital letters in Arabic)
i.last but not least, if I was giving an animal a shot I have to make sure that I am giving it in the right place.
ii.Afterwards I want to get a university level education in the united states.

iii.Next I move to wall street.

iv.arabs

Lack of capitalization in the Arabic alphabet and very different punctuation conventions. No distinction is made between upper and lower case (Sofer & Raimes, 2002).
 
 
 
 
 
 

Examples of Interlingual / Transfer Errors:

(Please refer to table # 4 in the appendix where all the errors are transcribed)
 
 

I would just like to mention here the problem of spelling. It has nothing to do with L1 transfer since Arabic is extremely different from English.

“The general question of how bad or good English children are at spelling was investigated by the National Foundation for Educational Research (Brooks et al, 1993), who looked at essays written by 1492 secondary school children in England at the two ages of 11 and 15. One measure was how many mistakes children made in the first ten lines of an essay. At the age of 11, only two children out of ten had no mistakes; two out of ten had five or more. By 15, four children out of ten had no mistakes; one out of ten had five or more. To quote the report, 'A good deal of improvement occurs between the ages of 11 and 15. However, even by age 15 there is still a minority of pupils who have relatively severe problems with spelling, to the extent that their ability to communicate in writing is seriously handicapped.'
The NFER research classified spelling mistakes into five major categories:- - 

- insertion of extra letters, such as the <l> added to 'untill';
- omission of letters, such as the <r> missing from 'occuring';
- substitution of different letters, such as <a> instead of <i> in 'definate';
- transposition of two letters, such as <ei> for <ie> in 'freind';
- grapheme substitution involving more than two letters but only a single cause, for example when an equivalent according to sound correspondence rules is substituted for the usual form, as in 'thort' for 'thought'” (Cook, 2002).

Hence, we can say that our students are not the only ones to make so many spelling mistakes. However, this does not mean that we should not train them to write properly.
 
 

Implications:

“We cannot really teach language, we can only create conditions
in which it will develop spontaneously in the mind in its own way”
Von Humboldt (Corder, 1967).


Brevet students are, according to this study, facing two kinds of problems in essay writing: Translation from Arabic, their mother tongue & Incomplete learning of essay writing rules and conventions. What should we, teachers, do then?

First, it would be very useful to increase the number of assignments for the sake of which the students would have to do a lot of research during their free time, hence they would be reading a lot of English material and thinking in English, especially if they have to make oral presentations for their work. (cf. appendix 11 for “Oral & Written Presentations: Guidelines & Expectations”). In addition, if we implement Team Work in class (http://nadabs.tripod.com/team.html --there are some useful guidelines on this site) and we get the students to work in groups on their projects, they would have to practice together for their oral presentations, and speak English with each other instead of Arabic. Besides, they would, hopefully, correct each other’s mistakes.

As for the writing rules and conventions, these need to be “enforced” much earlier. All teachers (from grade 1 and on) would need to get together in order to try to solve this problem. In the meantime, I can suggest a few error analysis exercises and objective tests (Appendix 12) that would help the students be more accurate, but still, nothing can replace Essay Writing itself in order to improve writing. The aforementioned project/presentation assignments are good, but they are not enough. The students need to write in class, at home, in their journals... They need to be given some well defined Essay Writing Rules (for the thesis statement, introduction, conclusion, transition words, etc...), and some samples of their writings need to be transcribed and distributed to them for correction and analysis: they would be learning from their mistakes!

In brief, we definitely have to adapt ourselves and our curriculum to their needs.
 
 

Limitations & Suggestions for Further studies

“We should be aware that different types of written material may produce a different distribution of error or a different set of error types” (Corder, 1974, p. 126).

“The recognition of error ... depends crucially upon the analyst making a correct interpretation of the learner’s intended meaning of the context” (Corder, 1974, p. 127).

“It has already been noted that learners often appear inconsistent in their production of errors” (Corder, 1974, p. 131).

We need to keep all these facts in mind when conducting an error analysis and reaching conclusions on which we would base all our teaching. Besides, this study was conducted on a small number of students, and also on a very limited number of essays. Therefore, the conclusions reached are far from being decisive.

We consider this study a preliminary one that just “gives an idea” of those brevet students’ sources of errors. It should set the pace for other studies which would be much more comprehensive, covering a bigger number of students and a wider range of materials; we hope to be able to conduct one ourselves in the near future.
 
 

Conclusion:

“Humans are prone not only to commit language errors themselves but also to err in their judgements of those errors committed by others” 

(James, 1998, p. 204).

We need to be careful when conducting an error analysis study.

This study attempted to identify, describe, categorize, and diagnose the errors in English essay writing of the Arabic speaking Brevet students. Just as George (1972), Lance (1969), Richards (1971), and Brudhiprabha (1972) found that only one-third of the second language learner’s errors can be attributed to NL language transfer, this is what this study came up with.  Most of the errors are caused by an overapplication of L2. We do need to incite our students to speak English at home and with their friends in order to reduce the number of mistakes due to Negative L1 transfer, but we also need to try to teach more effectively the rules and conventions of writing.

However, when trying to solve these problems, we need to bear in mind that

“L2 users’ knowledge of a second language is not the same as that of native speakers even at advanced levels. L2 users’ knowledge of their first language (L1) is not the same as that of monolingual native speakers. L2 users think in different ways to monolinguals. ... Trying to get students to be like native speakers is ineffective; their minds and their knowledge of language will inevitably be different. The benefits of learning a second language are becoming a different kind of person, not just adding another language. The main obstacle to setting the successful L2 user as the goal is the belief that the native speaker speaks the true form of English. This implies the comparison of one group with another: the language of non-natives has always to be compared with that of natives; anything that deviates is wrong. For other areas of language study, William Labov established that it is discrimination to treat one group in terms of another group that they can never belong to, whether women as men, black Americans as white Americans, or working-class as middle-class. People must be allowed to be what they are when this is an unchangeable effect of birth or of early up-bringing. 

An appropriate goal for many students is then using the L2 competently for their own purposes and in their own ways, which may very well not be the same as those of a monolingual native speaker and indeed may not involve native speakers at all. Students can become successful L2 users rather than forever ‘failing’ the native speaker target” (Cook, 1999).


 
 


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Additional References: Web Pages

Athabasca University- Canada- Distance learning education

http://www.athabascau.ca/

Athabasca University-Canada
Distance learning education- English language support- If English is not Your First Language
http://www.athabascau.ca/courses/engl/155/support/if_english_is_not_your_first_language.htm

Cairo Demographic Center
http://www.cdc.eun.eg/en.htm

Egyptian Demographic Center, 2000

http://www.frcu.eun.eg/www/homepage/cdc/cdc.htm

English-Arabic Translation Guidelines for Nominal Compounds
by Zouhair Maalej
University of Tunis I- Tunisia
http://simsim.rug.ac.be/Zmaalej/syncom.html

Learning the English writing system 15-Oct-02

Vivian Cook

http://privatewww.essex.ac.uk/~vcook/EWSChap5.htm

Modern and Classical Languages- 1997

State of Maine Learning Results
http://www.state.me.us/education/lres/mcl.pdf

On Arabic-English Cross-Language Information Retrieval: A Machine Translation Approach

Mohammed Aljlayl, Ophir Frieder, & David Grossman

Information Retrieval Laboratory- Illinois Institute of Technology
http://www.ir.iit.edu/publications/downloads/073_aljlayl_m.pdf

Problems in Learning English
http://www.culturalorientation.net/iraqi/ienglish.html

Research on secondary schools and literacy
http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/Research/secondaryindex.html

The Punctuation Project Home Page
Directors: Nigel Hall and Anne Robinson
http://www.partnership.mmu.ac.uk/punctuation/punctuation.html

Transfer/Cross-linguistic influence

Cathy Benson- ELT Journal Volume 56/1 January 2002 © Oxford University Press

http://www3.oup.co.uk/eltj/hdb/Volume_56/ Issue_01/freepdf/560068.pdf

What is the Role of Transfer in Interlanguage? Powell, G.

Centre for Research in Language Education (CRILE)

Department of Linguistics and Modern English Language

LAMEL- Lancaster university- UK

http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/groups/crile/crile33Powell.pdf

http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/groups/crile/workingpapers.htm

________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIXES

________________________________________________________________________


Appendix 1: LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

  1. Amb : Ambiguous
  2. Av : Avoidance
  3. BL : Blend
  4. CAss : Cross-association
  5. Cl : Clarity
  6. Cohr : Coherence
  7. Cohs : Cohesion
  8. Conf : Confusable
  9. DC : Deceptive cognate
  10. Dev: Developmental
  11. Devt : Development
  12. Dist : Distortion
  13. Dys : Dyslexic error
  14. EFL: English as a Foreign Language.
  15. EL: English Language.
  16. ELT: English Language Teaching.
  17. ESL: English as a Second Language.
  18. FA: False Analogy
  19. FC: False concepts/systems
  20. FF : False friend
  21. IE: Induced errors
  22. Ign: Ignorance
  23. IncompR/: Incomplete application of rule
  24. InterL: Interlingual
  25. IntraL: Intralingual
  26. Inv : Inversion
  27. L1: First Language (i.e. Arabic).
  28. L1T : Native language transfer
  29. L2: Second Language (i.e. English).
  30. LS : Letter shape
  31. Mat : Material induced error
  32. Misord : Misordering
  33. Missel : Misselection
  34. Mor: Morphology
  35. MT: Mother Tongue.
  36. MTI: Mother Tongue Interference (i.e. native language which Includes both colloquial and standard Arabic).
  37. NL : Native language
  38. OG: Over-generalization
  39. OLP: Other Language Learning Problems.
  40. Om : Omission
  41. Orig : Originality
  42. PhNM : Phonetic near-misses
  43. Phono: Phonological
  44. Rel : Relevance
  45. SdSp : Sound spelling
  46. SpConv : Spelling conventions
  47. TE : Teacher explanation
  48. TL : Target language
  49. Typo : Typographic
  50. UG: Under-generalization
  51. UL : Unnecessary letter
  52. Un : Unique

Appendix 2: School Mission Statement

 

To come soon



Appendix 3: Student Survey 


When asked the question “How long have you been at this school?” 9 of the 10 students whose essays were studied answered “Since nursery.” The remaining student answered “since grade 2.”

When asked the question “Which language do you speak the most at home?” most of the students answered “Arabic.” They do speak some English, but very little.

When asked the question “Which language do you speak the most with your friends?” 3 students answered “English.
 
 
 
 
Student #
Language spoken at home
Language spoken with friends
1
English & Arabic
Arabic
2
English & Arabic
English & Arabic
3
Arabic
Arabic/English
4
English & Arabic
Bulgarian
5
Arabic
Arabic
6
Arabic
English
7
Arabic
Arabic
8
Arabic
Arabic
9
Arabic
English
10
Arabic
English

 


Appendix 4: 

Arabic: General Language Characteristics




The Arabic language is one of the world's most widely used languages. According to Egyptian Demographic Center (2000), it is the mother tongue of about 300 million people. Arabic is the official language of many Arab nations in the Middle East and northern Africa, including Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen (Sofer & Raimes, 2002 & World Book Encyclopedia, 1997). It is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.
 
 

There are two types of Arabic, spoken and written. Spoken Arabic consists of dialects. Arabic is the descendant of the language of the Koran, the sacred book of the Islamic religion. The orientation of writing is from right-to left, and the Arabic alphabet consists of 28 letters. The Arabic alphabet can be extended to ninety elements by writing additional shapes, marks, and vowels (Tayli & Al-Salamah, 1990). Most Arabic words are morphologically derived from a list of roots; it can be tri, quad, or pent-literal. Most of these roots are three constants. Arabic words are classified into three main parts of speech: nouns (adjectives, and adverbs), verbs, and particles. In formal writing, Arabic sentences are delimited by commas and periods as in English, for instance. Many English words come from Arabic: alcohol, algebra, check, magazine, and tariff.
 
 

Standard Arabic: is the formal language of literature and written expression.

Colloquial Arabic: is the ordinary familiar language used in everyday conversation among Arabic speakers.
 
 

When discussing MTI from Arabic it should not be forgotten that some errors are caused by interference from standard and others by interference from colloquial Arabic.
 
 



Appendix 5: ESL Tip Sheet 1: Arabic (Sofer & Raimes, 2002) 

(In green is what applies to this study)

Spoken in Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen.
 
 

The written language

Arabic is written from right to left.

Spelling is phonetic.

No distinction is made between upper and lower case.
 
 

Sentence structure and word order

Under the influence of the Qur’an (Koran), writers aim at rhythmical balance and

coordination, with the split between subject and predicate occurring midway in a sentence.

Arabic favors coordination over subordination; sentences often begin with And or So.

Basic word order in Classical Arabic is V-S-O: the verb precedes the subject: *Hoped the committee to solve the problem. Colloquial Arabic is S - V - O .

Arabic uses a that clause where English uses infinitive: *I want that you stay.
 
 

Nouns and pronouns

Personal pronouns are often added to verbs: *My father he lives in California.

Relative pronoun makes no human/nonhuman distinction, and pronoun object is retained in a restrictive relative clause: *Here is the student which you met her last week.

Singular noun is used after a numeral above ten: *He has eleven cousin.
 
 

Verbs and verbals

No equivalent of auxiliary do: *You have a brother?

No verb be in present tense: *They going to the movies. *Where the post office?

No modal verbs.

No gerund or infinitive forms.

Perspective of tense and time is very different from English.

Past perfect is formed with be: *They were eat.

Reported speech retains tense of original: *She said she is leaving.

Simple present tense covers meaning of simple and progressive in English: *She working now. *She working every day.
 
 

Adjectives and adverbs

Adjectives follow noun: *a book interesting long.
 
 

Articles

No indefinite article: *He is student.

Definite article is used for days of the week, some months, some place names, and in many idiomatic expressions: *He went to the Peru. *He is still in the bed.
 
 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.




Appendix 6- Table 1:

Error Analysis: Scope of Study

Topic: What are your plans for the future?

Brevet Students || Ten 250-word essays studied

Error Categories & Sources + Abbreviations


Error Category
Error Sources
Error Sources / Abbreviations
Grammatical Errors
A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

B- INTRALINGUAL:

·Developmental/ analogical errors [Corder, 1974; p. 130] or over-generalization or of TL rules (Selinker, 1972 in Richards, 1974) = redundancy reduction (Richards, 1974; p 175)

·Ignorance of rule restrictions

·Incomplete application of rules = under-generalization

e.g. nobody knew where was Barbie (Richards + James, 1998; p 185)

·Building of false concepts/systems (Richards, p 174)

·Morphology => 3rd pers sing “s”, “ed”, “ing” <=> Concord + Phonological error (James p 154)

·False analogy => childs (James p 185)

·Induced errors (James p 178): from classroom situations

1.cross-association

2.teacher explanation

3.material induced errors

·Omissions/avoidance because of ignorance (James p 176)

C- AMBIGUOUS:

Both interlingual/interference and intralingual/developmental 


D- UNIQUE:

Neither interlingual nor intralingual <=> not in L1 and not developmental (Richards p 115- Dulay & Burt)

InterL/L1T



IntraL

Dev

OG



Ign

IncompR/

UG



FC

Mor

Concord

Phono

FA

IE


CAss

TE

Mat

Om/Av



Amb


Un

Syntactic errors
A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

B- INTRALINGUAL: (James p 157)

  1. Phrase structure errors = Misselection / Misordering
  2. Clause errors = Omitted, Misordered, Misselected, Blend
  3. Sentence errors = Discourse <=> Coherence
  4. Intersentence errors = Cohesion
InterL/L1T



IntraL

Missel / Misord



Om

BL

Cohr

Cohs


Lexical
Errors

(word choice)

A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference <=> False friends / Deceptive Cognates

B- INTRALINGUAL/Developmental:

  1. Confusables (James p. 145-147)
  2. Distortions -  form nonexistent in TL (James p 150)
InterL/L1T



FF / DC


IntraL/Dev

Conf

Dist


Semantic errors
INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

InterL/L1T

Organization (claim/thesis, transition words (TW), support, process, logical progression, flow of ideas) 


Discourse/Process

A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

B- INTRALINGUAL / Developmental:

  1. Relevance, clarity, development, originality (James p 161)
  2. Coherence/content = value as a message
  3. Cohesion = value as a text/product (Das, 1878; in James p 161)
InterL/L1T


IntraL/Dev

Rel/Cl/Devt

Orig

Cohr


Cohs


Substance (Mechanics + Spelling) 
A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

B- INTRALINGUAL / Developmental

InterL/L1T



IntraL/Dev


·Pronunciation: sound spelling, unnecessary letters
·Convention of spelling: omissions, inversion, letter shape (Corder p 138)

·Dyslexic errors, phonetic near-misses (e.g. course/coarse), confusables, typographic errors (James p 130)

SdSp
UL

SpConv

Om/Inv/LS

Dys/ PhNM

Conf/ Typo

Sources: Corder, 1974; Richards, 1974; James, 1998; Selinker, 1972 in Richards, 1974; Richards & Sampson, 1974.



Appendix 7- Table 2:

Error Analysis: Scope of Study


Topic: What are your plans for the future?

Brevet Students || Ten 250-word essays studied

Categorizing & Diagnosing Errors 


“A single word may show more than one error and appear, therefore, in more than one list” (Corder, 1974, p. 132).


Error Category

+ Conclusion / Inference

Error sub-category
Number of Errors
Examples & Error Sources
Error Sources / Abbreviations
Grammatical Errors

29 E

14 T

 
 
A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

B- INTRALINGUAL:

·Developmental/over-generalization or analogical errors [Allen & Corder, 1974; p. 130] of TL rules= redundancy reduction (Richards, 1974; p 175)

·Ignorance of rule restrictions

·Incomplete application of rules = under-generalization

e.g. nobody knew where was Barbie (Richards + James, 1998; p 185)

·Building of false concepts/systems (Richards, p 174)

·Morphology => 3rd pers sing “s”, “ed”, “ing” <=> Concord + Phonological error (James p 154)

·False analogy => childs (James p 185)

·Induced errors (James p 178): from classroom situations

1.cross-association

2.teacher explanation

3.material induced errors

·Omissions/avoidance because of ignorance (James p 176)

C- AMBIGUOUS:

Both interlingual/interference and intralingual/developmental 


D- UNIQUE:

Neither interlingual nor intralingual <=> not in L1 and not developmental (Richards p 115- Dulay & Burt)

InterL/L1T



IntraL

Dev

OG

Ign

IncR/UG


FC


Mor

Concord/Phono

FA

IE


CAss

TE

Mat

Om/Av


Amb




Un

 
Prepositions/
particles
5 Errors

(2 T)

  • I have trouble in school because? the lack of skills in sciences.
  • Getting an early start about the future can help by expanding our knowledge about our plans.
  • That is so because I would like to follow in my father’s footsteps.
  • You get a load of your chest every time you make a basket.
IntraL/Dev

InterL/L1T

Dev

InterL/L1T

Dev/UG/

Collocational

 
Articles
4 E

(3 T)

  • Evil is? force that can enter a person’s soul and conquer it.
  • My plans for the future is to become a professional basketball player, a good father, and? successful architect.
  • ?Most important thing here is that I never become a couch potato.
  • When the evil comes.  
InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

Dev/OG

InterL/L1T

Reported sp.
1 E
(1 T)
  • I wonder what god has written for me, what’s my destiny?


InterL/L1T

 
Sing/Plural
1 E
(1 T)
  • I am obsessed with money; it is just the way they smell.
InterL/L1T

 
Adjectives
2 E
(2 T)
  • Calling others kids to come.
  • Many others ways.


InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

 
Relative clauses
Ø E
  • --
 
Irregular verbs
1 E
  • They should have veterinarians around them in case they get sick or any strong disease stricked them.
Dev/FA/Concord
 
Tenses (wrong tense)


+ omission of 3rd pers. "s"

+ agreement of tenses

12 + 2 E

(5 T)

  • What ever path a person choose.
  • I have planned my future a long time ago.
  • last but not least, if I was giving an animal a shot I have to make sure that I am giving it in the right place.
  • They should have veterinarians around them in case they get sick or any strong disease stricked them.
  • I am caring mainly because an animal doesn’t have the same mental abilities as humans do.
  • Without a complete and proper education, you got nothing.
  • My plans for the future is to become a professional basketball player, a good father, and successful architect.
  • Hopefully if I become a professional basketball player, I would have enough money to maintain a good life. 
  • That, I have been doing since a long time ago.
  • In both of the plans for my future I clearly stated, that I began working on them from the beginning of my life
Dev/Concord

Dev/Concord



InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

Dev/Concord

InterL/L1T

Dev/Concord/OG

Dev/Concord

Dev/Concord/UG

Amb


InterL/L1T


Possessive case
1 E
  • That is so because I would like to follow in my fathers footsteps.
Dev/Concord
Syntactic errors

35 E

16 T


A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

B- INTRALINGUAL: (James p 157)

  1. Phrase structure errors = Misselection / Misordering
  2. Clause errors = Omitted, Misordered, Misselected, Blend
  3. Sentence errors = Discourse <=> Coherence
  4. Intersentence errors = Cohesion
InterL/L1T



IntraL


Missel / Misord

Om


BL

Cohr


Cohs



Coordination
(+ Beginning with “and” or “so”)
5 E
(3 T)
  • For, them not to hate me they need to respect me and realize how much I love them and how hard I work for them.
  • All my life I’ve really enjoyed the game and played it all my life and of course it is my favorite sport.
  • I can’t say much here besides that playing ball gives me a good workout and I stay in shape; and architecture works my brain.
InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T


Sentence structure
27 E
(11 T)
  • Animals have to be not acted hard on.
  • Consequently one must plan his life ? to be successful.
  • A good education will help increase my self-esteem because it makes me happier, feel smarter, and feel more successful than without an education.
  • It is known to be, that a person would be more appreaciated, and treated better if he were an educated individual than a failure.
  • I have learned a lesson in my life, that you should never ever give up.
  • Living your life owning a beatiful mansion, and amazing cars is a relative way of my lifestyle in the future.
  • My essay has covered up my plans for the future: to be educated, feeling content, and having your family and your close friends stand by your side all the time. (parallelism! coherence)
  • When I secure a job my goal is to become partner and have a quarter office.
  • I have to be determined heading off to a foriegn country.
  • I also sacrifice a lot most of all seeing my family.
  • All for money and respect (fragment).
  • This result will give me a positive attitude of authority over life.
  • I have many goals that I hope I will acheive.
  • I also have noticed something that most people when they grow up they Forget their Family and Friends because of work and all that stress But, I intend to still have a very close relationship with my family and friends.
  • I don’t just want to be a parent but a mom who is proud and deserves that position as well as an interesting lawyer.
  • What I want to be?
  • My plans are for three things: future work, future family, and sport I want to play.
  • I will help my children with any problems they are facing whether these problems are emotional, with friends, with a teacher, in school, etc... (parallelism!)
  • This image is very important, because I will be able to establish a good early start concerning my future.
  • The plans for my future are being a successful basketball player & to get a job as a computer engineer. (parallelism)
  • All my life I’ve really enjoyed the game and played it all my life and of course it is my favorite sport.
  • I have a lot of people in my family that are computer engineers.
  • That, I have been doing since a long time ago.
  • In both of the plans for my future I clearly stated, that I began working on them from the beginning of my life.
  • That is so because I would like to follow in my fathers foot steps, I love playing ball and because I would like to be healthy in the mind as well as the body.
  • I can’t say much here besides that playing ball gives me a good workout and I stay in shape.
InterL/L1T

Dev/Om

Missel/BL/Cohr

Amb

InterL/L1T

Cohr

Cohr

Om/Cohr/Missel

Cohr

BL

Cohr

InterL/L1T

Cohr

BL/Cohr

Cohs/Cohr/BL

InterL/L1T

Cohr

Cohr

Amb




Cohr/Missel

BL/Cohr

InterL/L1T

Amb

Cohr

InterL/L1T


InterL/L1T


InterL/L1T


Nouns & pronouns
e.g. My father he lives ...
2 E
(2 T)
  • I also have noticed something that most people when they grow up they Forget their Family and Friends because of work and all that stress But, I intend to still have a very close relationship with my family and friends.
  • when the evil comes, it is hard to defy it.
InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T


Word order
1 E
  • I also have noticed something that most people when they grow up they Forget their Family and Friends because of work and all that stress But, I intend to still have a very close relationship with my family and friends.
Dev/Misord
Lexical
Errors

(word choice)

26 E

19 T


A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference <=> False friends / Deceptive Cognates

B- INTRALINGUAL/Developmental:

  1. Confusables (James p. 145-147)
  2. Distortions -  form nonexistent in TL (James p 150)
InterL/L1T


FF / DC


IntraL/Dev

Conf


Dist




24 E
(17 T)
  • If I hit an animal it would loose trust in me and stay on irritating me while curing it.
  • Some animals are nice pets to have, when they have the right health and medications.
  • They should have veterinarians around them in case they get sick or any strong disease stricked them.
  • They should have veterinarians around them in case they get sick or any strong disease stricked them.
  • Animals are usually very afraid of high sounds.
  • For me acheiving these goals makes me happy. 
  • How ever each person must succeed to his ability.
  • When I secure a job my goal is to become partner and have a quarter office.
  • You never know what god has installed for you.
  • For me to be counted as a one of a kind mother I need to take care of my kids thus they will be successful in the future.
  • I don’t just want to be a parent but? a mom who is proud and deserves that position as well as an interesting lawyer.
  • In my free time I will practice on improving my basketball fundamentals.
  • Planning for the future gives an image for our future life.
  • Thus I will need to put a good concentration of time, practicing my basketball skills.
  • Hopefully if I become a professional basketball player, I would have enough money to maintain a good life
  • I need to get outside help. That outside help is provided by my family members.
  • Like I’ve said before.
  • Getting an early start about the future can help by expanding our knowledge about our plans.
  • Well you know what, I’ve given this a lot of thought I think I’m sure of what I want to be.
  • it rises problems.
InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

Dev

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

Dev

Dev

Dev

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T




InterL/L1T



InterL/L1T



InterL/L1T


Amb



InterL/L1T

Dev/Conf

Semantic errors

3 E

3 T


INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

InterL/L1T



3 E
(3 T)
  • When I secure a job my goal is to become partner and have a quarter office.
  • By acomplishing these pans I will insure myself an outstanding life.
  • Architecture works my brain.
InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T



InterL/L1T

Organization (claim/thesis, transition words (TW), support, process, logical progression, flow of ideas) 


Discourse/Process


A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

B- INTRALINGUAL / Developmental:

  1. Relevance, clarity, development, originality (James p 161)
  2. Coherence/content = value as a message
  3. Cohesion = value as a text/product (Das, 1878; in James p 161)
InterL/L1T



IntraL/Dev

Rel/Cl/Devt/Orig



Cohr


Cohs


5 good theses
5 good support

2 good TW



1.incorrect thesis- poor support- no transition words- no logical progression.
2.good thesis- good support- TW used incorrectly (“therefore” at the beginning of the body; “as a result” in the thesis.)

3.poor thesis- off topic- few TW- but good mechanics.

4.incorrect thesis- good TW- logical flow.

5.good thesis + support- few TW- third paragraph off topic.

6.good thesis- poor support- shallow- incorrect TW

7.good thesis- no respect for order of thesis components- poor TW- good flow.

8.good thesis but no parallelism- too many repetitions- too long- very few transition words.

9.thesis but no parallelism- good support- good TW- good flow.

10.thesis but no narrowing down.

1.Cohr/Cohs/


Cl/Devt

2.Cohs

3.Cohr/Cl/Devt

4.Cl

5.Devt/Cohs

6.Devt/Cohs

7.Devt/Cohs

8.Devt/Cl/Cohs

9.Devt

10.Devt

Substance (Mechanics + Spelling) 

120 E

25 T


A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

B- INTRALINGUAL / Developmental

InterL/L1T



IntraL/Dev


Punctuation 
64 + 11 E
(21 T)

(28%)

1.However?evil has its shapes and forms.
2.There are two paths?evil and good.

3.Once I am a veterinarian?the most important thing is that I give the right medication to my animals which are sick. 

4.First of all? in order to do that I have to give the sick animal the most benifitial medicine.

5.last but not least, if I was giving an animal a shot? I have to make sure that I am giving it in the right place.

6.Consequently? one must plan his life to be successful.

7.As a result, I intend to get a good education, and job, which will allow me to raise a family in a suitable enviroment.

8.Obtaining a good job will be a crucial part of my life for various reasons. One of which, is that it enables me to have a stable income.

9.This factor will allow me to focus on different aspects of my life which make me happier and help me improve my life.

10.It is known to be, that a person would be more appreaciated, and treated better? if he were an educated individual than a failure.

11.Living your life owning a beatiful mansion, and amazing cars is a relative way of my lifestyle in the future.

12.How ever? each person must succeed to his ability.

13.My plan is to succeed. To do that? I want to get a good education, become a lawyer, and have positive values.

14.To get a start on my good education? the first stepping stone is highschool graduation.

15.Afterwards? I want to get a university level education in the united states.

16.There? I want to get a PhD in law.

17.When I accomplish that? I earn a certain level of respect.

18.Next? I move to wall street. 

19.When I secure a job? my goal is to become partner and have a quarter office.

20.I have to be determined? heading off to a foriegn country.

21.I also sacrifice a lot? most of all? seeing my family.

22.My plan is difficult, to acheive it I have to work hard at school, become a famous lawyer, and finally carry positive values.

23.No matter who you are? try your best to beat life.

24.If money is an issue? apply for financial aid, or use resources at home? just dont let life get the best of you.

25.Personally? I beleive that you can never be sure.

26.For, them not to hate me? they need to respect me and realize how much I love them and how hard I work for them.

27.I also have noticed something? that most people? when they grow up? they Forget their Family and Friends because of work and all that stress? But, I intend to still have a very close relationship with my family and friends.

28.I don’t just want to be a parent? but a mom who is proud and deserves that position? as well as an interesting lawyer.

29.To become all this is really hard? but if I set my mind to it? I know that I will acheive it. 

30.I hope that this is forfilled? I wonder what god has written for me, what’s my destiny?

31.I have many plans for the future that, if accomplished? will insure me a successful life full of hapiness and joy.

32.When I get to university? I will try my best to get high honors in architecture.

33.After I finish university? I will not start working because I also want to get a master’s degree in architecture.

34.I will help my children with any problems they are facing? whether these problems are emotional, with friends, with a teacher, in school, etc...

35.I will support my children in any activity they choose to join? whether it is Fine arts, or sports.

36.In my free time? I will practice on improving my basketball fundamentals.

37.My advice to everyone is to have many plans for the future? instead of only one plan? because if one plan fails? you can try to achieve another plan.

38.An image, is just a vision about my future life.

39.The plans for my future are? being a successful basketball player & to get a job as a computer engineer.

40.Thus? I will need to put a good concentration of time, practicing my basketball skills.

41.Of course? I will need a lot of people’s assistance.

42.All my life? I’ve really enjoyed the game.

43.Hopefully? if I become a professional basketball player, I would have enough money to maintain a good life. 

44.Of course? I do not have a lot of experience as a computer engineer.

45.On the other hand? I gain a little bit of experience by messing around with computers.

46.I really do agree, that planning for the future is essential for a person to have a good life.

47.In both of the plans for my future? I clearly stated, that I began working on them from the beginning of my life.

48.Well? you know what, I’ve given this a lot of thought? I think I’m sure of what I want to be.

49.That is so because I would like to follow in my fathers foot steps, I love playing ball? and because I would like to be healthy in the mind as well as the body.

InterL/L1T

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

Dev

InterL/L1T

Dev

Dev

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

Dev

InterL/L1T

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev


InterL/L1T

Dev

Dev

InterL/L1T

Dev

Dev

InterL/L1T

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev

InterL/L1T


InterL/L1T

Dev

Dev

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev

InterL/L1T

Dev

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

Dev

InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T

Dev

Dev

Dev

Dev


Capitalization
9 E
(4 T)

(44.4%)

1.last but not least, if I was giving an animal a shot I have to make sure that I am giving it in the right place.
2.Afterwards I want to get a university level education in the united states.

3.Next I move to wall street.

4.I also have noticed something that most people when they grow up they Forget their Family and Friends because of work and all that stress But, I intend to still have a very close relationship with my family and friends.

5.I will support my children in any activity they choose to join whether it is Fine arts, or sports.

6.+ arabs

InterL/L1T




InterL/L1T

InterL/L1T



Dev

Dev

Dev



Dev

InterL/L1T


Spelling
·Pronunciation: sound spelling, unnecessary letters
·Convention of spelling: omissions, inversion, letter shape (Allen & Corder p 138)

·Dyslexic errors, phonetic near-misses (e.g. course/coarse), confusables, typographic errors (James p 130)

SdSp
UL

SpConv

Om/Inv/LS

Dys/ PhNM

Conf/ Typo




36 E
(0%)
1.If I hit an animal it would loose trust in me and stay on irritating me while curing it.
2.Veterenarians are very important to have around, especially in the ergent times.

3.… which will allow me to raise my family in a suitable enviroment.

4.Belive/beleive - - - -

5.What ever

6.To conqere

7.Gentel

8.Bieng happy

9.Necassary

10.Benifitial --

11.Acheive/acheiving - - - - -

12.Appreaciated

13.Beatiful

14.How ever

15.reuslt

16.foriegn

17.dont

18.forfilled

19.hapiness - 

20.succesful - 

21.acomplishing

22.foot steps

UL/OG/

SdSp

SdSp

SdSp

SpConv/SdSp

OG

SdSp/UL

SdSp

Dys

SdSp

SdSp

SpConv

SdSp

Dys/Typo?

SpConv

Dys

Dys

Om

SdSp

SdSp/Om

SdSp/Om

SdSp/Om

SdSp

TOTAL


214 Errors

77  Transfer Errors35.9%

Sources: Corder, 1974; Richards, 1974; James, 1998; Selinker, 1972 in Richards, 1974; Richards & Sampson, 1974.

Notes:





Appendix 8 - Table 3:

Error Analysis: Scope of Study


Topic: What are your plans for the future?

Brevet Students || Ten 250-word essays studied

Categorizing & Diagnosing Errors

Interlingual / Transfer Errors


Error Category
Error sub-category
Number of Errors
Examples
Grammatical Errors- 29 E- 14 T
Prepositions/
particles
5 Errors

(2 T)

  • Getting an early start about the future can help by expanding our knowledge about our plans.
  • That is so because I would like to follow in my father’s footsteps.
 
Articles
4 E

(3 T)

  • Evil is? force that can enter a person’s soul and conquer it.
  • My plans for the future is to become a professional basketball player, a good father, and? successful architect.
  • When the evil comes.
 
Reported sp.
1 E
(1 T)
  • I wonder what god has written for me, what’s my destiny?
 
Sing/Plural
1 E
(1 T)
  • I am obsessed with money; it is just the way they smell.
 
Adjectives
2 E
(2 T)
  • Calling others kids to come.
  • Many others ways.
Syntactic errors35 E- 16 T


Coordination
(+ Beginning with “and” or “so”)
5 E
(3 T)
  • For, them not to hate me they need to respect me and realize how much I love them and how hard I work for them.
  • All my life I’ve really enjoyed the game and played it all my life and of course it is my favorite sport.
  • I can’t say much here besides that playing ball gives me a good workout and I stay in shape; and architecture works my brain.


Sentence structure
27 E
(11 T)
  • Animals have to be not acted hard on.
  • It is known to be, that a person would be more appreaciated, and treated better if he were an educated individual than a failure.
  • I have learned a lesson in my life, that you should never ever give up.
  • This result will give me a positive attitude of authority over life.
  • What I want to be?
  • This image is very important, because I will be able to establish a good early start concerning my future.
  • I have a lot of people in my family that are computer engineers.
  • That, I have been doing since a long time ago.
  • In both of the plans for my future I clearly stated, that I began working on them from the beginning of my life.
  • That is so because I would like to follow in my fathers foot steps, I love playing ball and because I would like to be healthy in the mind as well as the body.
  • I can’t say much here besides that playing ball gives me a good workout and I stay in shape.


Nouns & pronouns
e.g. My father he lives ...
2 E
(2 T)
  • I also have noticed something that most people when they grow up they Forget their Family and Friends because of work and all that stress But, I intend to still have a very close relationship with my family and friends.
  • when the evil comes, it is hard to defy it.
Lexical Errors (word choice)26 E - 19 T



24 E
(17 T)
  • If I hit an animal it would loose trust in me and stay on irritating me while curing it.
  • Some animals are nice pets to have, when they have the right health and medications.
  • They should have veterinarians around them in case they get sick or any strong disease stricked them.
  • They should have veterinarians around them in case they get sick or any strong disease stricked them.
  • Animals are usually very afraid of high sounds.
  • For me acheiving these goals makes me happy. 
  • How ever each person must succeed to his ability.
  • You never know what god has installed for you.
  • For me to be counted as a one of a kind mother I need to take 
  • In my free time I will practice on improving my basketball fundamentals.
  • Planning for the future gives an image for our future life.
  • Thus I will need to put a good concentration of time, practicing my basketball skills.
  • Hopefully if I become a professional basketball player, I would have enough money to maintain a good life
  • I need to get outside help. That outside help is provided by my family members.
  • Like I’ve said before.
  • Getting an early start about the future can help by expanding our knowledge about our plans.
  • Well you know what, I’ve given this a lot of thought I think I’m sure of what I want to be.
Semantic errors3 E - 3 T



3 E
(3 T)
  • When I secure a job my goal is to become partner and have a quarter office.
  • By acomplishing these pans I will insure myself an outstanding life.
  • Architecture works my brain.
Substance (Mechanics + Spelling)  120 E -  25 T


Punctuation 
64 + 11 E
(21 T)

(28%)

1.However?evil has its shapes and forms.
2.As a result, I intend to get a good education, and job, which will allow me to raise a family in a suitable enviroment.

3.Obtaining a good job will be a crucial part of my life for various reasons. One of which, is that it enables me to have a stable income.

4.It is known to be, that a person would be more appreaciated, and treated better? if he were an educated individual than a failure.

5.How ever? each person must succeed to his ability.

6.My plan is to succeed. To do that? I want to get a good education, become a lawyer, and have positive values.

7.Afterwards? I want to get a university level education in the united states.

8.I have to be determined? heading off to a foriegn country.

9.No matter who you are? try your best to beat life.

10.Personally? I beleive that you can never be sure.

11.When I get to university? I will try my best to get high honors in architecture.

12.After I finish university? I will not start working because I also want to get a master’s degree in architecture.

13.In my free time? I will practice on improving my basketball fundamentals.

14.My advice to everyone is to have many plans for the future? instead of only one plan? because if one plan fails? you can try to achieve another plan.

15.Of course? I will need a lot of people’s assistance.

16.Hopefully? if I become a professional basketball player, I would have enough money to maintain a good life. 

17.Of course? I do not have a lot of experience as a computer engineer.

18.On the other hand? I gain a little bit of experience by messing around with computers.

19.have a good life.

20.In both of the plans for my future? I clearly stated, that I began working on them from the beginning of my life.

21.Well? you know what, I’ve given this a lot of thought? I think I’m sure of what I want to be.

22.That is so because I would like to follow in my fathers foot steps, I love playing ball? and because I would like to be healthy in the mind as well as the body.


Capitalization
9 E
(4 T)

(44.4%)

1.last but not least, if I was giving an animal a shot I have to make sure that I am giving it in the right place.
2.Afterwards I want to get a university level education in the united states.

3.Next I move to wall street.

4.arabs

TOTAL


77  Transfer Errors35.9%
Out of 214 Errors


Appendix 9 - Table 4:

Error Analysis: Scope of Study


Topic: What are your plans for the future?

Brevet Students || Ten 250-word essays studied

Categorizing & Diagnosing Errors

Intralingual/Developmental Errors 


Error Category
Error sub-category
Number of Errors
Examples
Grammatical Errors   29 E - 14 T
Prepositions/
particles
5 Errors

(2 T)

  • I have trouble in school because? the lack of skills in sciences.
  • Getting an early start about the future can help by expanding our knowledge about our plans.
  • You get a load of your chest every time you make a basket.
 
Articles
4 E

(3 T)

  • ?Most important thing here is that I never become a couch potato.
 
Irregular verbs
1 E
  • They should have veterinarians around them in case they get sick or any strong disease stricked them.
 
Tenses (wrong tense)


+ omission of 3rd pers. "s"

+ agreement of tenses

12 + 2 E

(5 T)

  • What ever path a person choose.
  • I have planned my future a long time ago.
  • They should have veterinarians around them in case they get sick or any strong disease stricked them.
  • Without a complete and proper education, you got nothing.
  • My plans for the future is to become a professional basketball player, a good father, and successful architect.
  • Hopefully if I become a professional basketball player, I would have enough money to maintain a good life. 
  • That, I have been doing since a long time ago.
 
Possessive case
1 E
  • That is so because I would like to follow in my fathers footsteps.
Syntactic errors 35 E- 16 T


Sentence structure
27 E
(11 T)
  • Consequently one must plan his life ? to be successful.
  • A good education will help increase my self-esteem because it makes me happier, feel smarter, and feel more successful than without an education.
  • It is known to be, that a person would be more appreaciated, and treated better if he were an educated individual than a failure.
  • Living your life owning a beatiful mansion, and amazing cars is a relative way of my lifestyle in the future.
  • My essay has covered up my plans for the future: to be educated, feeling content, and having your family and your close friends stand by your side all the time. (parallelism! coherence)
  • When I secure a job my goal is to become partner and have a quarter office.
  • I have to be determined heading off to a foriegn country.
  • I also sacrifice a lot most of all seeing my family.
  • All for money and respect (fragment).
  • I have many goals that I hope I will acheive.
  • I also have noticed something that most people when they grow up they Forget their Family and Friends because of work and all that stress But, I intend to still have a very close relationship with my family and friends.
  • I don’t just want to be a parent but a mom who is proud and deserves that position as well as an interesting lawyer.
  • My plans are for three things: future work, future family, and sport I want to play.
  • I will help my children with any problems they are facing whether these problems are emotional, with friends, with a teacher, in school, etc... (parallelism!)
  • This image is very important, because I will be able to establish a good early start concerning my future.
  • The plans for my future are being a successful basketball player & to get a job as a computer engineer. (parallelism)
  • All my life I’ve really enjoyed the game and played it all my life and of course it is my favorite sport.
  • That, I have been doing since a long time ago.
  • In both of the plans for my future I clearly stated, that I began working on them from the beginning of my life.


Word order
1 E
  • I also have noticed something that most people when they grow up they Forget their Family and Friends because of work and all that stress But, I intend to still have a very close relationship with my family and friends.
Lexical Errors (word choice) 26 E - 19 T



24 E
(17 T)
  • For me to be counted as a one of a kind mother I need to take care of my kids thus they will be successful in the future.
  • I don’t just want to be a parent but? a mom who is proud and deserves that position as well as an interesting lawyer.
  • Getting an early start about the future can help by expanding our knowledge about our plans.
  • it rises problems.
Organization (claim/thesis, transition words (TW), support, process, logical progression, flow of ideas) Discourse/Process
5 good theses
5 good support

2 good TW



1.incorrect thesis- poor support- no transition words- no logical progression.
2.good thesis- good support- TW used incorrectly (“therefore” at the beginning of the body; “as a result” in the thesis.)

3.poor thesis- off topic- few TW- but good mechanics.

4.incorrect thesis- good TW- logical flow.

5.good thesis + support- few TW- third paragraph off topic.

6.good thesis- poor support- shallow- incorrect TW

7.good thesis- no respect for order of thesis components- poor TW- good flow.

8.good thesis but no parallelism- too many repetitions- too long- very few transition words.

9.thesis but no parallelism- good support- good TW- good flow.

10.thesis but no narrowing down.

Substance (Mechanics + Spelling)   120 E-  25 T


Punctuation 
64 + 11 E
(21 T)

(28%)

1.There are two paths?evil and good.
2.Once I am a veterinarian?the most important thing is that I give the right medication to my animals which are sick. 

3.First of all? in order to do that I have to give the sick animal the most benifitial medicine.

4.last but not least, if I was giving an animal a shot? I have to make sure that I am giving it in the right place.

5.Consequently? one must plan his life to be successful.

6.suitable enviroment.

7.   This factor will allow me to focus on different aspects of my life which make me happier and help me improve my life.

8.It is known to be, that a person would be more appreaciated, and treated better? if he were an educated individual than a failure.

9.Living your life owning a beatiful mansion, and amazing cars is a relative way of my lifestyle in the future.

10.To get a start on my good education? the first stepping stone is highschool graduation.

11.There? I want to get a PhD in law.

12.When I accomplish that? I earn a certain level of respect.

13.Next? I move to wall street. 

14.When I secure a job? my goal is to become partner and have a quarter office.

15.I also sacrifice a lot? most of all? seeing my family.

16.My plan is difficult, to acheive it I have to work hard at school, become a famous lawyer, and finally carry positive values.

17.If money is an issue? apply for financial aid, or use resources at home? just dont let life get the best of you.

18.For, them not to hate me? they need to respect me and realize how much I love them and how hard I work for them.

19.I also have noticed something? that most people? when they grow up? they Forget their Family and Friends because of work and all that stress? But, I intend to still have a very close relationship with my family and friends.

20.I don’t just want to be a parent? but a mom who is proud and deserves that position? as well as an interesting lawyer.

21.To become all this is really hard? but if I set my mind to it? I know that I will acheive it. 

22.I hope that this is forfilled? I wonder what god has written for me, what’s my destiny?

23.I have many plans for the future that, if accomplished? will insure me a successful life full of hapiness and joy.

24.I will help my children with any problems they are facing? whether these problems are emotional, with friends, with a teacher, in school, etc...

25.I will support my children in any activity they choose to join? whether it is Fine arts, or sports.

26.An image, is just a vision about my future life.

27.The plans for my future are? being a successful basketball player & to get a job as a computer engineer.

28.Thus? I will need to put a good concentration of time, practicing my basketball skills.

29.All my life? I’ve really enjoyed the game.

30.I really do agree, that planning for the future is essential for a person to have a good life.

31.Well? you know what, I’ve given this a lot of thought? I think I’m sure of what I want to be.

32.That is so because I would like to follow in my fathers foot steps, I love playing ball? and because I would like to be healthy in the mind as well as the body.


Capitalization
9 E
(4 T)

(44.4%)

1.I also have noticed something that most people when they grow up they Forget their Family and Friends because of work and all that stress But, I intend to still have a very close relationship with my family and friends.
2.I will support my children in any activity they choose to join whether it is Fine arts, or sports.


Spelling
36 E
(0%)
1.If I hit an animal it would loose trust in me and stay on irritating me while curing it.
2.Veterenarians are very important to have around, especially in the ergent times.

3.… which will allow me to raise my family in a suitable enviroment.

4.Belive/beleive - - - -

5.What ever

6.To conqere

7.Gentel

8.Bieng happy

9.Necassary

10.Benifitial --

11.Acheive/acheiving - - - - -

12.Appreaciated

13.Beatiful

14.How ever

15.reuslt

16.foriegn

17.dont

18.forfilled

19.hapiness - 

20.succesful - 

21.acomplishing

22.foot steps

TOTAL


214 Errors

137 Developmental Errors 64.1%

 



Appendix 10- Table 5:

Error Analysis: Scope of Study


Topic: What are your plans for the future?

Brevet Students || Ten 250-word essays studied

Error Sources & Numbers compared


Error Category
Interlingual Errors

InterL/L1T

Intralingual Errors

IntraL/Dev

Error Sources
Grammatical Errors
14 Transfer

(48.2%)

15 Dev.

A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

B- INTRALINGUAL:

·Developmental/ analogical errors [Corder, 1974; p. 130] or over-generalization or of TL rules (Selinker, 1972 in Richards, 1974) = redundancy reduction (Richards, 1974; p 175)

·Ignorance of rule restrictions

·Incomplete application of rules = under-generalization

e.g. nobody knew where was Barbie (Richards + James, 1998; p 185)

·Building of false concepts/systems (Richards, p 174)

·Morphology => 3rd pers sing “s”, “ed”, “ing” <=> Concord + Phonological error (James p 154)

·False analogy => childs (James p 185)

·Induced errors (James p 178): from classroom situations

1.cross-association

2.teacher explanation

3.material induced errors

·Omissions/avoidance because of ignorance (James p 176)

C- AMBIGUOUS:

Both interlingual/interference and intralingual/developmental 


D- UNIQUE:

Neither interlingual nor intralingual <=> not in L1 and not developmental (Richards p 115- Dulay & Burt)

Syntactic errors

16 T

(45.7%)

19 D

A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

B- INTRALINGUAL: (James p 157)

1.Phrase structure errors = Misselection / Misordering

2.Clause errors = Omitted, Misordered, Misselected, Blend

3.Sentence errors = Discourse <=> Coherence

4.Intersentence errors = Cohesion

Lexical
Errors

(word choice)

19 T

(73%)

7 D

A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference <=> False friends / Deceptive Cognates

B- INTRALINGUAL/Developmental:

1.Confusables (James p. 145-147)

2.Distortions -  form nonexistent in TL (James p 150)

Semantic errors

3 T

(100%)

0 D

INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

Organization (claim/thesis, transition words (TW), support, process, logical progression, flow of ideas) 


Discourse/Process


A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

B- INTRALINGUAL / Developmental:

1.Relevance, clarity, development, originality (James p 161)

2.Coherence/content = value as a message

3.Cohesion = value as a text/product (Das, 1878; in James p 161)

Substance (Mechanics + Spelling) 

25 T

(20.8%)

95 D

A- INTERLINGUAL:

L1 (negative) Transfer / interference

B- INTRALINGUAL / Developmental

Punctuation (28% T)
Capitalization (44.4% T)

Spelling (0% T)

Spelling
·Pronunciation: sound spelling, unnecessary letters

·Convention of spelling: omissions, inversion, letter shape (Corder p 138)

·Dyslexic errors, phonetic near-misses (e.g. course/coarse), confusables, typographic errors (James p 130)

TOTAL

77  Transfer Errors35.9%
137 Dev.

Errors

64.1%

214 Errors

Sources: Corder, 1974; Richards, 1974; James, 1998; Selinker, 1972 in Richards, 1974; Richards & Sampson, 1974

Summary

Of Negative L1 Transfer Error Percentage

· Semantic                                        100%

·Lexical                                          73.0%
·Grammatical                                 48.2%

·Syntactic                                       45.7 %

·Substance/Mechanics                  20.8% 
 
 
 
 



Appendix 11

Oral/Written Presentations
Guidelines and Expectations

http://nadabs.tripod.com/presguide1.html



Appendix 12 


ERROR ANALYSIS EXERCISES & OBJECTIVE TESTS
 
 

http://nadabs.tripod.com/onlinematerials.htm#3


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